Every brain injury is unique and the same injury can affect two people differently. The effects of brain injury are often quite hidden and not always obvious to others. Download our useful leaflet which shows the effects of brain injury.

Problems with motor skills

  • Physical weakness or paralysis down one side of the body (also known as hemiplegia).
  • Poor balance and coordination (also known as ataxia).
  • Abnormal muscle tone and stiffness.

Sensory problems

  • Problems with hearing, vision, taste, smell, touch
  • Not knowing the relationship of the body to fixed objects

Communication difficulties

  • Problems understanding speech
  • Difficulty in expressing thoughts

Issues with executive functioning

  • Problems with thinking and reason
  • Struggling to pay attention
  • Lack of judgment
  • Difficulty with problem-solving

Memory problems

  • Short term memory problems
  • Slower learning
  • Limited learning
  • Find it hard to retrieve long-term memory
Behavioral issues

  • Angry outbursts
  • Inability to control behaviour
  • Inability to filter what they say

Emotional changes

  • Moodiness
  • Easily frustrated
  • Anxious
  • Impatient
  • Angry
  • Depressed
  • Suffering from low self-esteem

Changes in bodily functions

  • Experiencing higher or lower body temperature
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Bowel and bladder problems
  • Different sleep patterns


  • Seizures may occur after a brain injury
  • It is difficult to predict if a person will develop seizures

Visual challenges

  • Damage to the optic nerve and other parts of the brain can result in a visual blind spot, partial vision loss
  • Visual impairments can often be overlooked
  • We recommend a vision evaluation as soon as possible after the injury